Library

For research enquiries or to share crowdfunding resources, please email info@ukcfa.org.uk

2019

14 June 2019

UK Smaller Businesses Receive a Record £6.7bn Equity Finance Investment

UK Smaller Businesses Receive a Record £6.7bn Equity Finance Investment

UKBAA Angel Investment Awards 2019

Tuesday 2nd July 2019, Illuminate at the Science Museum, London

UKBAA Angel Investment Awards 2019 Tuesday 2nd July 2019, Illuminate at the Science Museum, London

Connected Investing Manchester

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2019/05/17/connected-investing-manchester/

Connected Investing Bristol

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2019/05/17/connected-investing-bristol/

Connected Investing Cardiff

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2019/05/17/connected-investing-cardiff/

Connected Investing Newcastle

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2019/05/17/connected-investing-newcastle/

Crowdfunding in search of the next Apple or Facebook

How young people are piling their savings into start-ups in search of business ‘unicorns’ by Nikou Asgari from Financial Times

Crowdfunding in search of the next Apple or Facebook

Seven Tips For A Successful Crowdfunding Campaign

With the peer-to-peer finance sector now growing at a rate of 35 per cent a year, increasing numbers of UK-based small and medium-sized enterprises are turning to crowdfunding as a viable source of investment capital. But if you’re thinking about raising money in this way during 2019, don’t assume that the platforms’ continuing expansion means you’re guaranteed to achieve your ambitions. Successful pitches require hard work

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1Uy

2018

UKCFA Says News About IFISA Uptake is Great for Investors and the UK Economy

The UK Crowdfunding Association (UKFCA) issued a statement on the IFISA report

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1TJ

Guide to crowdfunding and P2P lending

Crowdfunding and peer-to-peer (P2P) lending have become the funding source du jour – not least with the news of Funding Circle’s expected initial public offering (IPO), valuing the firm at £1.5bn.

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1TL

UKCFA Welcomes FCA Review of Crowdfunding and P2P Lending

The UKCFA welcomes the publication of the long awaited FCA review of crowdfunding and p2p lending and welcomes the further alignment of P2P and Investment Crowdfunding regulation. The process of the review has involved giving the FCA unprecedented access to our customer data and senior managers to examine all elements of the diverse range of businesses which make up this growing and important sector of financial services.

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1Ty

UK Government Ups Crowdfunding without Prospectus to €8 Million – Matching Germany

In a significant policy move by the UK government, the threshold for investment crowdfunding has been upped to €8 million thus matching the recent change by Germany which announced the same funding limit. This increase is due to a change in the Prospectus Directive.

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1Tn

Crowdbond platforms set for bigger projects amid fundraising rule change

CROWDBOND platforms may offer bigger projects from later this month after the government approved legislation to increase the threshold for exemption from the Prospectus Directive from €5m (£4.4m) to €8m (£7.07m).

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1Tl

BWB Compliance expands with specialist hire

New hire brings added knowledge and expertise in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and crowdfunding sectors

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1Td

FinTech North Liverpool is next week!

FinTech North Liverpool 2018 is on next Tuesday 12th June.

https://wp.me/p7V0Qb-1T2

2017

How UK councils are crowdfunding themselves out of a crisis

Taken from The Independent 15 May 2017

Since 2015, 45 councils across the UK have used civic crowdfunding to plug gaps

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2017/05/16/how-uk-councils-are-crowdfunding-themselves-out-of-a-crisis/

The National Crowdfunding Association of Canada release a ground-breaking report on the state of the alternative finance crowdfunding industry in Canada.

Fresh Research Just Released

TORONTO, ON December 13, 2016 – The National Crowdfunding Association of Canada (NCFA Canada) and partners are pleased to release a ground-breaking report on the state of the alternative finance crowdfunding industry in Canada.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2017/01/19/the-national-crowdfunding-association-of-canada-release-a-ground-breaking-report-on-the-state-of-the-alternative-finance-crowdfunding-industry-in-canada/

2016

UKCFA responds to the FCA’s feedback statement relating to their review of the rules for Crowdfunding

Today the FCA published its interim feedback to the call for input to the post-implementation review of the FCA’s crowdfunding rules in Feedback Statement (FS16/13).

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/12/09/interim-feedback-on-the-post-implementation-review-of-the-rules-for-crowdfunding/

UKCFA welcomes launch of updated Business Finance Guide

The UK Crowdfunding Association is delighted to partner with the Institute of Chartered Accountants on the latest edition of the Business Finance Guide.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/06/28/ukcfa-welcomes-launch-of-updated-business-finance-guide/

UK Crowdfunding Association responds to EU referendum outcome

The UK Crowdfunding Association (UKCFA) has worked hard to create a more diverse, innovative and resilient financial system that gives people a real choice about how they invest, save and donate their money for things they care about.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/06/24/uk-crowdfunding-association-responds-to-eu-referendum-outcome/

London Technology Week: Blitzing Regulation for FinTechs

21-23 June 2016

We’re running workshops for FinTech firms keen to work out their regulatory issues.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/06/16/london-technology-week-blitzing-regulation-for-fintechs/

UK Crowdfunding Association elects new Directors at Annual General Meeting

Newly elected UKCFA Directors (from left to right): Bruce Davis, Abundance Generation; Paul Massey, Crowdcube; Martin Smulian, FundingKnight; Karen Kerrigan, Seedrs; Kate Eggleshaw, JustGiving; Justin Hubble, Property Partner; Atuksha Poonwassie, Simple Backing; Julia Groves, Downing LLP; Frank Mukahanana, Quidcycle.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/06/16/uk-crowdfunding-association-elects-new-directors-at-annual-general-meeting/

Series 3 of The Seed and EIS Hour begins May 16th

Series 3 of The Seed & EIS Hour begins May 16th and moves to Monday evenings. The Seed & EIS Hour begins its 3rd season on May 16th.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/05/06/series-3-of-the-seed-eis-hour-begins-may-16th/

European Crowdfunding platforms unite in support of Capital Markets Union. Call for ambitious reforms of the Prospectus Directive

European crowdfunding platforms, represented by the European Crowdfunding Network, the UK Crowdfunding Association, Financement Participatif France and Nederland Crowdfunding welcome the current EU debates in Brussels regarding the Prospectus Directive, aimed at making it easier for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) across Europe to raise finance.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/04/20/european-crowdfunding-platforms-unite-in-support-of-capital-markets-union-call-for-ambitious-reforms-of-the-prospectus-directive/

Katipult and MANGOPAY partner to bring a new investment crowdfunding software to UK Market

The Canadian company Katipult launches its white-labelled crowdfunding software in the UK.   It partners with the payment company MANGOPAY in order to bring a comprehensive and compliant crowdfunding solution to the UK market.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/04/01/katipult-and-mangopay-partner-to-bring-a-new-investment-crowdfunding-software-to-uk-market/

Fintech North spotlights alternative finance in North England

Mark your calendars for the 27th of April for an event that highlights the bursting alternative finance sector in the north of England.

https://www.ukcfa.org.uk/2016/03/21/fintech-north-spotlights-alternative-finance-in-north-england/

Previous

Paul Bailey, 2013, Branding Post-Capitalism: How a tool for the capitalist, industrial economy might develop for an emergent and relational post-industrial economy, in which the ‘crowd’ is the contributor of a company’s essential financial capital that enables production. @paulmarkbailey | www.paulbailey.me  http://www.paulbailey.me/Branding_post-capitalism_PaulBailey2013.pdf

DEEP Centre report, Catalyzing Growth, Investment and Access to Capital, 2013, http://tinyurl.com/q6l33wt

TechCity News, The Future of Crowdfunding, 2013, http://tinyurl.com/ozu9t64

Opalesque, Private Equity Strategies Insiders View: M&A, Crowdfunding Trends – 2013, http://tinyurl.com/mqt4vog

CBI, Ripe for the picking: A guide to alternative sources of finance, 2013, http://tinyurl.com/na99x4y

Show me the Money: Opening up Big Data in Finance http://ow.ly/nevcb

Changing Banking for Good – Report of the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards http://ow.ly/mRzMM

Respective scopes of EU and national laws concerning crowdfunding operations. How to change legal framework at both levels http://tinyurl.com/nt95w6x

The Government’s Response to the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards http://ow.ly/mRAJB

Crowdfunding for Europe wiki http://www.finpart.org/wiki/index.php/Evolutions-Droit-Europeen-Droit-National

Regulation of Crowdfunding in Germany, the UK, Spain and Italy and the Impact of the European Single Market http://tinyurl.com/l3d5wp5

A Framework for European Crowdfunding (2012) http://ow.ly/mTvyJ

BBVA report, pp.28-34, US Economic Outlook,  http://ow.ly/mTrXd

Swept Away by the Crowd? Crowdfunding, Venture Capital, and the Selection of Entrepreneurs http://ow.ly/mTDqh

Can Social Finance Meet Social Need, Robbie Davison, http://ow.ly/mRAcI

Crowdfunding An alternative source of funding with potential. Deutche Bank http://ow.ly/mRG1r

Crowdfunding: The Scottish Perspective, Glasgow Chamber of Commerce and Twintangibles, http://ow.ly/mRAoM

Crowdfunding for Climate Change climate action at the local level? http://ow.ly/mRGhF

Is Crowdfunding Right For You? http://ow.ly/mRFHy

Burtch et al., 2013, Cultural Differences and Geography as determinants of online pro-social lending http://ow.ly/mPxRA

Kuppuswamy et al., 2013, Crowdfunding creative ideas: the dynamics of project backers in Kickstarter http://ow.ly/mPy0q

Read, 2013, Crowdfunding: an Empirical and theoretical model of non-profit support http://ow.ly/mPy5u

Hollow, 2013, Crowdfunding and Civic Society in Europa: a profitable partnership? http://ow.ly/mPycZ

The CDFI Jobs Portal & Crowdfunding Regulations Enhancing the job-creation impact of the Crowdfunding Act through CDFIs http://ow.ly/mPwHQ

Markowitz, E. (2013), “When Kickstarter Investors Want Their Money Back,” Inc., Jan 10, http://ow.ly/mPGXN

Working Collective Intelligence: the case of p2p lending http://ow.ly/mPAu5

Is crowdfunding doomed in Sweden? An empirical examination of institutional logics, perceived affordances, and IT entrepreneurial behaviour Crowds, a metriangulation of crowdfunding research, Gleasure, 2013 http://ow.ly/mPwOC

Sakamoto et al., 2013, Achieving Sustainable Society through Micro-level crowdfunding http://ow.ly/mPxAX

Berglin et al., 2013, Leveraging Customers as Investors: the Driving Forces behind Crowdfunding http://ow.ly/mPyQf

Giudici, 2013, Why crowdfunding can succeed: the role of proponents’ individual and territorial social capital  http://ow.ly/mPzwS

Cumming, 2013, Demand driven securities regulations: Evidence from crowdfunding http://ow.ly/mPzLx

NESTA: The Venture Crowd: Crowdfunding Equity Investment into Business http://ow.ly/neviN

Li, 2013, Fraud in crowdfunding and anti-fraud insurance http://ow.ly/mPzTv

M. Moodie, 2013 “Microfinance and the Gender of Risk: The Case of Kiva.org” http://ow.ly/mPxgc

K. E. Davis and A. Gelpern, “Peer-to-Peer Financing for Development: Regulating the Intermediaries”, New York University Law and Economics Working Papers. New York University, 2013. http://ow.ly/mPxrp

Bayus, B. (2013), “Crowdsourcing New Product Ideas Over Time: An Analysis of the Dell IdeaStorm Community,” Management Science, 59 (January), 2013, 226-244, http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2432657

Taking on the money lenders 2013 – Lesson from Japan http://ow.ly/mRAYp

Why consumers now love to shop for products and services at concept stage, http://www.trendwatching.com/trends/pretail/

Cavaglieri, C. (2013), Crowdfunding: There’s no rush to join the hordes,http://ow.ly/nevsj

Jansen, E. (2013), Is the crowd a feasible design partner?, http://www.good.is/posts/is-the-crowd-a-feasible-design-partner
Jeffries, A. (2013), Kickstarter is not a store, except when it is, http://www.theverge.com/2013/4/17/4230440/kickstarter-is-not-a-store-except-when-it-is

http://www.altfinancenews.com/downloads/daringdozen.pdf

http://www.crowdfundinsider.com/2013/10/24754-world-bank-report-crowdfunding/

2012

Crowdfunding: Maximizing the Promise and Minimizing the Peril, http://ow.ly/mRFkd

Crowdfunding in a Canadian Context. Exploring the Potential of Crowdfunding in the Creative Content Industries http://ow.ly/mRFvT

Wortham, J. (2012), “Start-Ups Look to the Crowd,” New York Times, April 29, http://ow.ly/mPLMN

Massolution (2012), “Crowdfunding Industry Report,” Mayl (accessed May 8, 2012). http://ow.ly/mPH7L

Crowdfunding – a report by Adeoluwa Adeniyi http://ow.ly/mRFQT

Bradford, C. (2012), “Crowdfunding and the Federal Securities Laws,” Columbia Business Law Review, 1, 1-150, http://ow.ly/mPMMJ

Burtch, G., A. Ghose, and S. Wattal (2012), “An Empirical Examination of the Antecedents and Consequences of Investment Patterns in Crowd-Funded Markets,” available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1928168, forthcoming in Information Systems Research. http://ow.ly/mPIrU

Gerber, E., J. Hui, and P. Kuo (2012), “Crowdfunding: Why People are Motivated to Post and Fund Projects on Crowdfunding Platforms,” Design, Influence, and Social Technologies Workshop at Computer Supported Cooperative Work, http://ow.ly/mPDzG

Gerber et al., 2012, Why people are motivated to crowdfund. http://ow.ly/mPyIV

Mollick, E. (2012), “The Dynamics of Crowdfunding: Determinants of Success and Failure,” available at SSRN: http://ow.ly/mPHix

Ward, C. and V. Ramachandran (2010), “Crowdfunding the Next Hit: Microfunding Online Experience Goods,” University of Massachusetts Working Paper, http://ow.ly/mRb6R

Hughes, 2012, Virtual worlds, augmented reality, blended reality http://ow.ly/mPA6A

Belleflamme et al., Crowdfunding: An Organisational perspective, Zhang, 2012

Matos, 2012, Crowdfunding: Material incentives & Performance http://ow.ly/mPz0f

Gerber et al., 2012, Crowdfunding: Why people are motivated to post and fund projects on crowdfunding platforms http://ow.ly/mPz7D

Yum et al., 2012, From the wisdom to the wealth of crowds: A Metatriangulation of Crowdfunding Research  http://ow.ly/mPBeu

Hermes, 2012, Microfinance: its impact, outreach and sustainability. http://ow.ly/mPxoR

Hazen, T. (2012), “Social Networks and the Law: Crowdfunding or Fraudfunding? Social Networks and the Securities Laws—Why the Specially Tailored Exemption Must be Conditioned on Meaningful Disclosure,” North Carolina Law Review, 90, 1735-1807, http://ow.ly/mPMe0

P. Ly and G. Mason, “Competition Between Microfinance NGOs: Evidence from Kiva”,World Development, vol. 40, pp. 643-655, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPAkK

A. Merritt and T. Stubbs, “Complementing the local and global: promoting sustainability action through linked local-level and formal sustainability funding mechanisms”, Public Administration and Development, vol. 32, pp. 278-291, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPAdv

C. S. Bradford, “Crowdfunding and the Federal Securities Laws”, Columbia Business Law Review, pp. 1-150, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPzVE

I. E. Sorensen, “Crowdsourcing and outsourcing: the impact of online funding and distribution on the documentary film industry in the UK”, Media Culture & Society, vol. 34, pp. 726-743, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPzOK

G. Burtch, A. Ghose, and S. Wattal, “An Empirical Examination of Cultural Biases in Interpersonal Economic Exchange”, in ICIS, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPzE0

L. R. Heller and K. D. Badding, “For compassion or money? The factors influencing the funding of micro loans”, The Journal of Socio-Economics, vol. 41, pp. 831-835, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPztN

H. Yum, B. Lee, and M. Chae, “From the wisdom of crowds to my own judgment in microfinance through online peer-to-peer lending platforms”, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, vol. 11, pp. 469-483, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPzlL

P. Ly and G. Mason, “Individual Preferences Over Development Projects: Evidence from Microlending on Kiva”, Voluntas, vol. 23, pp. 1036-1055, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPz9y

L. Dezső and G. Loewenstein, “Lenders’ blind trust and borrowers’ blind spots: A descriptive investigation of personal loans”, Journal of Economic Psychology, vol. 33, pp. 996-1011, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPyNG

S. C. Beer and K. E. Badura, “The New Renaissance: A Breakthrough Time For Artists”,Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law, vol. 1, pp. 66-74, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPywC

Judging Borrowers By The Company They Keep: Social Networks and Adverse Selection in Online Peer-to-Peer Lending, Mingfeng Lin, N.R. Prabhala**, and Siva Viswanathan* http://ow.ly/mPydO

J. Duarte, S. Siegel, and L. Young, “Trust and Credit: The Role of Appearance in Peer-to-peer Lending”, Review of Financial Studies, vol. 25, pp. 2455-2483, 2012, http://ow.ly/mPy2J

Shontell, A. and M. Dickey (2012), “17 New Ideas That Are Actually Worth Millions,” Business Insider,  http://www.businessinsider.com/17-million-dollar-ideas-on-kickstarter-2012-12?op=1 http://ow.ly/mPFaF

Smith, S., F. Windmeijer, and E. Wright (2012), “The Effect of Social Information on Charitable Donations:  Evidence from the (Running) Field,” University of Bristol Working Paper,  http://ow.ly/mPFyw

Chasan, E. (2012), “Crowd-Funding Industry Braces for Regulation,” Wall Street Journal, http://ow.ly/mPImK

Bates Wells & Braithwaite (2012): Ten Reforms to Grow the Social Investment Market. http://ow.ly/mPIf3

Best, J., Neiss, S. and Jones, D. (2012): How Crowdfund Investing Helps Solve Three Pressing Socioeconomic Challenges. http://ow.ly/mPI3F

Canadian Media Fund – CMF (2012), ‘Crowd Funding in a Canadian Context: Exploring the potential of crowdfunding in the creative content industries’, http://ow.ly/neDax

 UKIE (2012), ‘UKIE Crowd Funding Report: A proposal to facilitate crowd funding in the UK’, http://ow.ly/neDgk
Downs, D. (2012), 5 Kickstarter projects slammed with success, http://ow.ly/neDQc
Freeman, K. (2012), What’s so great about the Pebble smartphone watch?, http://ow.ly/neE3h
Gouillart, F. (2012), Co-Creation: The Real Social-Media Revolution, http://ow.ly/neE8r
ISB (2012), How Peer to Peer Communities will change the World, http://ow.ly/neEfE
Lumos. (2012), Finance 2.0 – Wall St meets the web, http://ow.ly/neElI
Lumos. (2012), Business model breakdown: Crowdfunding, http://www.lumosforbusiness.com/blog/792
Wired (2012), ‘Power of the masses’: relive Yossi Vardi’s talk at Wired 2011, http://ow.ly/neEAC

2011

Crowdfunding Schemes in Europe http://ow.ly/mRF6h

Belleflamme et al., 2011, Crowdfunding: Tapping the right crowd – http://ow.ly/mPvRd

Sonenshein, 2011, How accounts shape lending decisions through fostering perceived trustworthiness http://ow.ly/mPyve

A. Ordanini, L. Miceli, M. Pizzetti, and A. Parasuraman, “Crowd-funding: transforming customers into investors through innovative service platforms”, Journal of Service Management, vol. 22, pp. 443-470, 2011, http://ow.ly/mPxTT

Horowitz, S. (2011), Occupy Big Business: The Sharing Economy’s Quiet Revolution, http://m.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2011/12/occupy-big-business-the-sharing-economys-quiet-revolution/249582/ ,

S. Sonenshein, M. Herzenstein, and U. M. Dholakia, “How accounts shape lending decisions through fostering perceived trustworthiness”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 115, pp. 69-84, 2011 http://ow.ly/mPxDv

Jamali, H. and M. Nikzad (2011), “Article Title Type and Its Relation with the Number of Downloads and Citations,” Scientometrics, 88(2), 653-661. http://ow.ly/mPGxn

Ricker, T. (2011), “Kickstarted: How One Company is Revolutionizing Product Development,” The Verge, December 20, . http://ow.ly/mPHGh

Adler, C. (2011), “How Kickstarter Became a Lab for Daring Prototypes and Ingenious Products,” http://ow.ly/mPMsh

Agarwal, A., C. Catalini, and A. Goldfarb (2011), “The Geography of Crowdfunding,” available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1770375

Hemer, J. (2011), “A Snapshot on Crowdfunding,” Fraunhofer ISI Working Paper, , http://ow.ly/mPDl2

Bielsko-Biala Declaration: Realising the full potential of crowdfunding initiatives (2011), http://ow.ly/mPGRX

2010

Herzenstein et al., 2010, Tell me a good story and I may lend you my money: The role of narratives in peer-to-peer lending decisions http://ow.ly/mPyk9

Agrawal, A., Catalini, C., and Goldfarb, A. (2010). The Geography of Crowdfunding. Mimeo. http://ow.ly/mPCDx

Botsman, R. (2010), Rachel Botsman: the case for collaborative consumption, http://www.ted.com/talks/rachel_botsman_the_case_for_collaborative_consumption.html , Dec 2010, web page [Accessed 31/03/2013]

Mod, C. (2010), “Kickstartup: Successful Fund Raising with Kickstarter.com,” http://craigmod.com/journal/kickstartup/ http://ow.ly/mPHco

Economist (2010), “Putting Your Money Where Your Mouse Is,” September 2, http://ow.ly/mPEnE

Freedman, S., and G.Z. Jin (2010), Learning by Doing with Asymmetric Information: Evidence from Prosper.com. Mimeo. Available on SSRN  http://ow.ly/mPDzV

Oestreicher-Singer, G. and Sundararajan, A. (2010). The Visible Hand of Peer Networks in Electronic Markets. Mimeo. http://ow.ly/mPEWj

Ward, C., and Ramachandran, V. (2010). Crowdfunding the Next Hit: Microfunding Online Experience Goods. Mimeo. http://ow.ly/mPF1p

Wooldridge, J (2010), Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://ow.ly/mPGdy

2009

Kappel, T. (2009), Ex Ante Crowdfunding and the Recording Industry: A Model for the U.S.?. Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review 29: 375-385. http://ow.ly/mPEhj

Rao et al., 2009, Energy-microfinance for below poverty line households in India http://ow.ly/mPxb2

Lin et al., 2009, Judging borrowers by the company they keep: social networks and adverse selection in online peer-to-peer lending http://ow.ly/mPynV

Ghatak, M., and H. Mueller (2009), Thanks for Nothing? Not-forProfits and Motivated Agents. LSE STICERD Research Paper Nbr. EOPP 014. http://ow.ly/mPDGk

2008

Albors, J., J.C. Ramos and J.L. Hervas (2008), New Learning Network Paradigms: Communities of Objectives, Crowdsourcing, Wikis and Open Source. International Journal of Information Management 28: 194-202. http://ow.ly/mPCON

Brabham D.C. (2008), Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving: An Introduction and Cases. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14: 75- 90. http://ow.ly/mPD7w

Everett, C.R. (2008), Group Membership, Relationship Banking and Loan Default Risk: The Case of Online Social Lending. Mimeo. Available on SSRN: http://ow.ly/mPDrj

Simonsohn, U. and D. Ariely (2008), “When Rational Sellers Face Nonrational Buyers: Evidence from Herding on eBay,” Management Science, 54(9), 1624-1637. http://ow.ly/mPFsj

2007 and before

Howe, J. (2006) The Rise of Crowdsourcing. Wired 14 (6), available online at: http://ow.ly/mPDSv

Markey, P. (2000), “Bystander Intervention in Computer-Mediated Communication,” Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 183-188. http://ow.ly/mPGQE

Ariely, D. and I. Simonson (2003), “Buying, Bidding, Playing, or Competing? Value Assessment and Decision Dynamics in Online Auctions,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(1&2), 113-123, http://ow.ly/mPMBK

O’Reilly, T. (2007), What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software. Communications & Strategies 65: 17-37. http://ow.ly/mPEPn

Glaeser, E.L., and A. Shleifer (2001), Not-for-Profit Entrepreneurs.Journal of Public Economics 81: 99-115. http://ow.ly/mPDNw

Vesterlund, L. (2006), “Why Do People Give?” in W. Powell and R. Steinberg (eds.), The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 568-590 http://ow.ly/mRbbZ

Garcia, S., K. Weaver, G. Moskowitz, and J. Darley (2002), “Crowded Minds: The Implicit Bystander Effect,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(4), 843-853, http://ow.ly/mPDKl

Latane, B. and S. Nida (1981), “Ten Years of Research on Group Size and Helping,” Psychological Bulletin, 89(2), 308-324. http://ow.ly/mPGDR

Bhid´e, A. (1992), Bootstrap Finance: The Art of Start-ups. Harvard Business Review 70 (66): 109-117. http://ow.ly/mPD2s

Katz, M. and Shapiro, C. (1985). Network Externalities, Competition and Compatibility. American Economic Review 75: 424-440. http://ow.ly/mPEmV